Al-Qaeda organization development of history

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Table of contents

 

Introduction

The topic of the research paper is “The origins of Al Qaeda in the Middle East”. Will going to describe all that situations what related to the topic. All that will be discussed in this work is important and necessary for this “terroristic organization”, all of which are developed in a very long time, and there have been significant changes that could significantly affect all their activities. However, this will be clearly set out and analyzed the following hypothesis - Al-Qaeda organization origins with their specific outcomes and relatively difficult relations with other countries which could affect nowadays and generate with them by their power.

To prove the hypothesis needed to clearly define in the following tasks:

      1. Al-Qaeda organization development of history,
      2. Organization main actors,
      3. Purpose of the organization and its operations,
      4. Key executives and their performance or innovation in organization,
      5. Organization activities, strategy and obstacles,
      6. Historical impact nowadays and conclusions (recommendations).

Within this research paper, different types of materials will be used in order to more accurately describe and analyze it, and improve the quality of work. Consequently this will use the following authors - Angel Rabasa, Peter Chalk, Kim Cragin, Sara A. Daly, Heather S. Gregg, Theodore W. Karasik, Kevin A. O’Brien, William Rosenau, Bill Roggio, John Lindh, Kourosh Ziabari, Syed Saleem Shahzad, Benoit Léger, David Schlosberg as well as the following websites-http://www.rand.org/pubs/monographs/MG429.html,http://www.cfr.org/terrorist-organizations/al-qaeda-k-al-qaida-al-qaida/p9126,http://www.longwarjournal.org/threat-matrix/archives/2011/09/attiya_allah_authors_article_i.php,http://mediabugs.org/bugs/mediabugs-authors-compound-the-john-lindh-al-qaeda-myth and other.

 

Al-Qaeda organization development of history

In this chapter it is necessary to tell the whole history of the main report to all readers and should be clear and inform what were the main events. The key is to know, which were the main elements that reflect the organization development, as well as to understand these organization movements this would also help to go into their activities.

Firstly, defeating the global jihadist movement - which is defined as al-Qaeda and jihadist groups that are associated with or inspired by al-Qaeda is the most pressing security challenge for the United States today in the universe.1 Thus, up to the challenge has gone through several phases, which are also important, and now is a great challenge in a number of other countries. The global jihadist movement can be distinguished from traditional or local jihads, the armed campaign by the local Islamist opponents with often limited purposes, as well as geographic scope, as it is directed against the U.S. and its allies around the world, and the broad geopolitical objectives.2

While the U.S. led global war on terrorism has had some notable successes, such as the destruction of al-Qaeda's sanctuary in Afghanistan to eliminate many of the group leaders, and to solve many countries to take action against al-Qaeda and its partners are not informed observers believe that al-Qaeda will be eliminated soon. Indeed, in some respects, al-Qaeda has metastasized to the even more formidable opponent, dispersed throughout the world, largely self-sufficient, and constantly adopting new and innovative terrorist tactics. Despite intense government retaliation seems to be the ability to create the affect of air, land and sea such as the USS Cole operation in October 2000, attacks on September 11, 2001, Madrid railway bombings in March 2004, the Sinai resort bombings of 2004 in October, and the London bombings of July 2005. ASV itself continues to threaten large-scale attacks. The fight against al-Qaeda could thus be employed in the U.S. National Security for at least the remainder of the decade, and possibly longer.

Although the al-Qaeda is still clearly there, as we have seen with the recent discovery of detailed surveillance reports for many purposes in the United States, the Group has significantly transformed. Since September 11, al-Qaeda has gone through several stages: from the well-structured terrorist organization with headquarters in Afghanistan, hunting for remnants of bin Laden's inner circle during and after Operation Enduring Freedom, the freest and atomized company with reduced command and control, but continued ability to function. In addition, al-Qaeda continues to serve as a source of motivation and inspiration for regional terrorist groups that are not formally associated with it, but this part of the ideology of global jihad and the concept of operations. 3

The organization was established in 1989; the year in Afghanistan and over the life has undergone a number of changes - in its structure and in the methods of its policies. The predecessor of al-Qaeda was an organization founded by Osama bin Laden with his teacher-ideologue Abdullah Azzam – “Maktab al-Khidamat”.4 Al-Qaeda helped finance, recruit, and transport, and train thousands of fighters from dozens of countries to be part of an Afghan resistance to defeat the Soviet Union.5 This structure, as later and al-Qaeda had two parts - an ideological and military. The latter is responsible for the recruitment of militants across the Arab world, their training, supply and transportation of weapons in a war zone. Financial support of this work was performed in United States, hoping to weaken the influence of the Soviet Union in the region. This goal was largely achieved, giving rise, but new threats. According to Benazir Bhutto, the future victim of militants occupied during that period as Prime Minister of Pakistan, the United States “have created a Frankenstein that will come back to take revenge on us”.

However, according to one of the famous scholars of the al-Qaeda, Nick Fielding, in the post-war period of the Mujahideen there is some controversy regarding the aims and methods of the future organization. In particular teacher bin Laden, Abdullah Azzam and the organization he founded, “Tahadi” (Call) advocated the construction of a theocratic state within Afghanistan, but not for continuing Gazavat, but against the U.S. However, the group of Osama won, and prevailed line the Islamization of the Arab world, and itself Azzam was killed soon after.

Time span from the early 90s to the 1996 year called “wild period” in the development of the movement.6 During this period, such attacks have been made, as an explosion at a hotel in Yemen in December 1992, an explosion at the World Trade Center in New York in the 1993, attempts to Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak in Ethiopia in 1995, the terrorist attacks against U.S. troops in Saudi Arabia in the 1995 and 1996.

The period from 1996 to 2001 considers the phase ‘flowering’ (heyday) of al-Qaeda. It was then that Bin Laden declared aims and objectives of the two organizations in their policy documents, published in the 1996 and 1998 respectively. Their ideological content can be found below. During this period, they formed a territorial structure of the terrorist group. As established in February 1998 “The World Islamic Front for Jihad against the Jews and Crusaders” included two Egyptian, two Pakistani and one Iraqi terrorist group, and a group from Bangladesh.7 Also at the same time, a very high-profile terrorist acts carried out by the organization: the bombings of the U.S. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania, the U.S. warship Cole attack, killing the commander of the Afghan Northern Alliance, Ahmed Shah Massoud, which is also attributed to al-Qaeda militants. The terrorist attacks in the U.S. on 11 September 2001 were the beginning of a new stage not only in the work of al-Qaeda, but also in world politics in general. As they say “Al-Qaeda” is Arabic for “the base.”8

There was a large-scale “war against terrorism” This war takes the form of intervention in the countries that were suspected of supporting terrorists. At 2001, it was the beginning of the overthrow of the Taliban regime in Afghanistan, 2003 - Saddam Hussein's regime in Iraq. In the 90 years of the twentieth century, the United States limited their intervention periodic bombing sites in Sudan (at 1998, already after Osama bin Laden to leave the country), and measures such as a naval blockade and aerial bombardment, with regard to Iraq.

The time between 2001-2005 is called the period of existence in the form of a network. Major terrorist attacks of that period - the explosions of two synagogues in Istanbul, the 2003, the attacks on the eve of elections in Spain, the 2003, the attack on the oil terminal in Basra, the 2004, the explosions on the London Underground in the year 2005.

After 2005, part of the top al-Qaeda has been caught, some killed, and militant training bases in the border areas of Afghanistan and Pakistan have been occupied by troops of the Western coalition, which allowed some researchers say the onset of fragmentation. The main action of this period can be considered the murder in 2007 of Benazir Bhutto, former Prime Minister of Pakistan, and the first woman to hold such a post in a Muslim country. Also in the 2009, two explosions were heard in Baghdad, and in 2010 were preventable major terrorist attacks in Norway.

Thus, for the entire period of the terrorist organization al-Qaeda's strategic geopolitical objectives declared, it remained the same, while the principles of structural and territorial organization changed. Also were changes in the tactics for achieving global goals.9

10

The evolution of territorial and organizational structure

Evolution of the organization is mentioned, because readers will then be able to understand how all of its activities evolved. As well as this chapter will put on the shelves all the historical facts, this brings us to a greater overall picture of the entire organization.

Al Qaeda took shape as a network organization by the end of the twentieth century, from the time of entering into it, “the Egyptian Islamic Jihad,” under the direction of Ayman al-Zawahiri, the Egyptian group “Jamaa Islamiya” led by Rifai Ahmed Taha (Abu Issir).

Egyptian extremists closely associated with the movement “Muslim Brotherhood”, founded in the first half of the twentieth century, and with extensive experience in terrorist acts against the secular rulers of their own state. Zawahiri himself also serves in the role of ideology, is the author of several books (most notably “Bitter Harvest”) reinvents the experience of Islamist movements.

The fact that more young organization Al-Qaeda were able to integrate into its structure earlier and significantly different from her on the goals and methods of the Egyptian Organization shows the great potential of al-Qaeda. In an al-Qaeda house in Afghanistan, New York Times reporters found a brief statement of the “Goals and Objectives of Jihad” - Establishing the rule of God on earth, attaining martyrdom in the cause of God, purification of the ranks of Islam from the elements of depravity.11 As well as the connection is already in 2004, Iraqi Sunni organization. Leader of “Al-Qaeda in the land of the Two Rivers” is now Abu Hamza al-Muhajir, who succeeded in the 2006, the creator of the killer cells of Abu Musab al-Zarqawi. The Iraqi cell feature is that it is not fighting U.S. forces and the Shiite infidels, controlling, according to al-Zarqawi, the government since the overthrow of the secular regime of Saddam Hussein. In our view, the policy is one of the key weaknesses of the tactics of al-Qaeda, a strong barrier to the implementation of its geopolitical goals. The structure of the cell of Al Qaeda in Iraq is also the Kurdish group “Ansar al-Islam”

The Pakistani terrorist group, originally bearing the name of Harkat-ul-Mujahideen and 2001 converted to Jaish-e-Mohammed, for their history and other ways is similar to al-Qaeda. Like Al Qaeda, it was founded in the late 80's to fight the Soviets in Afghanistan, also used suicide bombings and recruited its supporters around the world. After 1998, many camps of the group located in the Afghan-Pakistan border, were destroyed by U.S. air strikes, so now the group is active in the Indian states of Jammu and Kashmir.

The period of greatest activity of European cell of Al-Qaeda - the 2000, when they were organized bombings in Spain and London. The group named bin Laden associate Abu Hafs, who died in the 2001, in Afghanistan. Abu Hafs was originally a member of the “Egyptian Islamic Jihad”, fought in Afghanistan together with bin Laden and was considered his most likely successor.

Summarizing, can say that the Egyptian and Pakistani groups initially participated in the signing of the declaration of the “Islamic Front against Jews and Crusaders” in the 1998, and their leaders took part in the Afghan war. European cell is most likely in the full sense of “subsidiary”, in relation to al-Qaeda.

In the second half of the 2000, the organization changed its several territorial configurations. Training centres and bases of militants moved from Afghanistan and Pakistan to the Philippines, Indian Kashmir, the Horn of Africa - Yemen and Somalia. Part of the group moved to Pakistan and Iran. According to some scholars of Al-Qaeda, the group has become a movement. Currently part of the movement can be considered and the Algerian group “Salafis” and “Jemaah al-Islam” in South Asia, which is responsible for the terrorist attacks in Bali and Indonesia.

In terms of organizational principle communication between cells and the hierarchy of Al-Qaeda network may be called an umbrella structure. The terrorists are more poetic name – “the principle of the vine,” Members of the organization, like a grape, are combined in cell-territorial groups that make up the cluster, which is based on one branch. If you tear a few grapes, neighbouring branches are not affected. Detachment commanders often do not know about the other teams.

Researchers disagree on the degree of independence of the cells of the organization. At the height of their autonomy, most likely independence was lower because the reallocation of funds from the centre was intensive, as well as the movement of militants recruited from one of the Arab world and Europe - in others. According to Jessica Stern, author of “Terror in the Name of God,” after the organization's top management was actually underground, revenues from legitimate businesses are smaller, the cell almost moved to a system of self-financing and self-recruitment of militants.

Certain components in hierarchical organizations, however, are present. Place the head of the group in case of his death or arrest is next on the list. In the case of the death of Osama, a group led by Ayman al-Zawahiri. Bin Laden in the management of their organization based on the advisory board - Majlis Shura, followed by eight of the executive committee, the principal of which are religious and military, head of the Abu Hafs al-Muritani and Saif al-Adel.12

Organization main actors

In this paragraph will be describe the main actors within the organization, however their main actions and purpose. It will help to understand what these actors are and what them actually done. As well as if no one knows what were the main actors, then do not understand the main goal. Each of the actors was necessary because each of them bringing their own specific features. In turn, this also means that these actors are the founders of this organization, because without them the organization would not have existed.

From the last week from the date of liquidation in the Pakistani city of Abbotabad leader of Al Qaeda and the terrorist number one Osama bin Laden has been written many lines of the operation itself, the background and its consequences, and how will the world now. Against this background, you can count on one hand, attempts to clearly analyze what lies in the very near future brainchild of bin Laden – Al-Qaeda. Who will take the place of the destroyed U.S. Special Forces Islamist, and what issues will inevitably have to deal with the new leader of the terrorist group after 'coming to power?

Bin Laden's first influences were the Al Thagher teachers who offered extra-curricular Islam lessons. In the early 1980s, bin Laden worked with the mujahideen, guerrillas fighting a self-proclaimed holy war to oust the Soviets from Afghanistan. From 1986-1988, he himself fought. In 1988, bin Laden formed Al Qaeda (the Base), a militant transnational network whose original backbone was Arab Mujahideen who fought the Soviets in Afghanistan. Ten years later, bin Laden forged the Islamic Front for Jihad against the Jews and Crusaders, a coalition of terrorist groups intending to wage war against Americans and battle their Middle Eastern military presence. Another key influence was Abdullah Azzam, a Palestinian-born professor at King Abdulaziz University, and a founder of Hamas, the Palestinian militant group.13

Tuesday, May 17, the world's media were quick to spread the word that bin Laden's successor is named. Reports stated that the acting head of the operational headquarters of the organization was one of the companions of Ayman al-Zawahiri, the Egyptian Saif al-Adel, who dealt with earlier international connections Al-Qaeda. This decision was allegedly commanding groups urgently gathered in some secluded spot. It was also stated that the decision is not the time, not even a half-measure, because very good chance to become the new leader of the terrorist network in Islamist Muhammad Mustafa Yamni, and that he will be elected by all the jihadists as their leader on the full Assembly. True or not – it does not matter. It is important that the international community, it seems, were quick to mislead. The appointment C.al Adel head of the operational headquarters of the Al Qaeda does not mean that it automatically becomes the successor of Osama bin Laden. Here it suffices to recall that the operational activities of the terrorist group in recent years engaged in Ayman al-Zawahiri, the number one but still remained bin Laden. At the moment, there is no reason to believe that this principle will change after the death of the former leader.

That A.az-Zawahiri, many experts, as well as those directly related to the Islamists, is considered the most likely successor to Osama. His candidacy is not 100% support group, but it is unlikely that this fact somehow affected his position in the Al-Qaeda. The appointment of Adel S.Aliyev head operations center can be considered as an additional guarantee stable position Zawahiri in Al-Qaeda, as al-Adel is one of the closest associates of Zawahiri is Egyptian wing groups. As to what will happen to the offspring of bin Laden in the very near future, a detailed analysis on the subject was prepared by the British counter-terrorism think tank Foundation Killiama, which employs many former jihadists, such as Noman Benotman, a former activist of the Libyan Islamic fighting group (The Libyan Islamic Fighting Group) and associate of bin Laden and Zawahiri, from 1989 to 2000. He became one of the authors of the report “coming struggle within the” Al-Qaeda (The coming struggle within al-Qaeda), which briefly describes the influential members of the group and its prospects of imminent updates after bin Laden's death, as well as the task of deciding a new leader. The first paragraph of the review is devoted to “the challenges to be faced by the successor to bin Laden.”

Despite the various speculations in the media about who will be the next leader of al-Qaeda, the Islamists are likely to lead Dr. Ayman al-Zawahiri, an Egyptian, long-time head of the operational activities of the group. Just like other jihadi groups, Al-Qaeda has an effective mechanism for the transfer of power and delegation of authority in the case of killing or capture of the leader. On this basis, after the elimination of bin Laden's control of the organization is automatically switched to Zawahiri. While the media and present it differently, this continuity has never been the subject of dispute within the Al-Qaeda. Just experience and skills make him Zawahri most prepared candidate for this role. At the same time, it should be noted that members of the group never intended Zawahiri as bin Laden's successor, but attention to his person and powers that it has always been compatible with the attitude to bin Laden, - said in an analysis of the Fund Killiama.

They further state that whoever becomes the new official leader, he will inevitably be faced with some serious challenges coming from the inside, al-Qaeda, and from the outside. One of the most serious may be disagreement about the strategy and tactics of the group. Among the first of the organization portrayed different opinions: some consider it too soft, while others are too extreme. Various movements advocate increased attention to the situation in Egypt on the one hand, and Yemen, and other countries in the region - on the other. One of the most serious external challenges, according to the report, for Zawahiri would need to give Al-Qaida urgency in connection with the events of the “Arab Spring” (referring to the popular uprisings in Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, etc., change regimes in some state's Maghreb and the Middle East); to ignore that just did not work, especially considering the fact that the “spring” has clearly demonstrated the effectiveness of non-violent forms of protest in the Arab world.

In addition, the main challenges attributed the need to take into account the interests of the regional offices and group organization, management of different religious and political currents within the Al Qaeda, relationship management with the Taliban and rebranding of Al-Qaeda. Since its inception Al-Qaeda has repeatedly suffered from differences between the Egyptian and Saudi pressure groups. One of the advantages of Osama bin Laden was the successful use of his Saudi birth on one side and close ties with the Egyptian members of the “al-Qaeda on the other. That is why one of the main tasks Zawahiri as the leader of the organization will be reassuring the Saudi cell that he would not further the interests of Al-Qaeda in Yemen, Saudi Arabia and other countries in the pro-Egyptian way” - said Noman Benotman.

Another challenge may be the consequences of the traditional division of jihadist (and Al Qaeda in particular) at the tactical and pragmatists, whose world is largely shaped the ideology of the organization of the Muslim Brotherhood, and the Salafi jihadist wing (salafi-jihadi), on whose ideas greatly influenced Wahhabi extremist movements. Pragmatists believe that it is acceptable to ignore certain ideological differences in order to achieve important policy goals, while fanatics insist that the political and military actions, Al-Qaeda must be inspired exclusively by religious teachings, no matter what kind of results to be achieved. Zawahiri was always treated to the first, while bin Laden skillfully maneuvered between the two groups. Most pronounced differences factions emerged in Iraq, where Zavarihi opposed the exclusion of Iraqi Shiites, while Abu Musab al-Zarqawi believed that they should be killed wherever possible as apostates. This approach actually led to the complete defeat of the Iraqi branch of the al-Qaeda. All this shows that Zawahiri, it is possible to encounter serious opposition within the organization in the face of religious fanatics.

Fund Killiama analysts noted, and the importance for the Al Qaeda to preserve good relations with the “Afghan - Pakistani movement Taliban”, as the deterioration of contacts with supporters of Mullah Omar would weaken the position of the terrorist groups in Afghanistan and Pakistan. Finally, the authors of the report believe that before Zawahiri in connection with the events of the “Arab Spring” will inevitably arise the need to re-brand Al-Qaeda (no matter how strange it may sound). Today the organization is known almost exclusively for its attacks, which often die simple Muslim inhabitants. Therefore, if its leaders want to Al-Qaeda has not lost relevance in the future and could count on more support in the Muslim world, they will have to develop a clearer policy position and seek sympathy of the masses with clear and understandable slogans that can be focused on “social justice” and the “liberation of the Muslim countries of Western influence”. As part of these reforms Zawahiri can go on to make the public more than the younger generation, such as Abu Yahya al-Libi. This version can say that after the elimination of bin Laden is A.Ya.al-Libi many world media outlets were quick to call one of the possible successors to the Islamist leader.

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Описание работы
The topic of the research paper is “The origins of Al Qaeda in the Middle East”. Will going to describe all that situations what related to the topic. All that will be discussed in this work is important and necessary for this “terroristic organization”, all of which are developed in a very long time, and there have been significant changes that could significantly affect all their activities. However, this will be clearly set out and analyzed the following hypothesis - Al-Qaeda organization origins with their specific outcomes and relatively difficult relations with other countries which could affect nowadays and generate with them by their power.
Содержание
Introduction 2
Al-Qaeda organization development of history 3
The evolution of territorial and organizational structure 5
Organization main actors 7
Purpose of the organization and its operations 10
Economic foundations of the organization 11
Particularly methods of Al-Qaeda, as a terrorist organization 12
The evolution of methods for a terrorist group and a coalition of Western countries 13
The presence of the organization in the global information space 13
Changing the alignment of political forces in the Arab world, under the influence of the Al-Qaeda 14
Advantages and disadvantages of the geopolitical strategy of al-Qaeda in terms of achieving its performance goals 15
Recommended changes in methods of implementing political doctrine 16
Conclusion 17
Bibliography 17