Exchange programs

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Educational exchange programs

During the last 70 years the world has changed a lot. Many changes have happened in educational system.  Appearance of the exchange program is one of them.

International exchange program (IEP) is a good chance to change your life. A student exchange program generally could be defined as a program where students from secondary school or university choose to study abroad in partner institutions. The terms 'student exchange' and 'study abroad' are often used interchangeably however study abroad usually involves the student study full time and not in partnered institution like student going for exchange where they will be studying in the partner university of their home institution. But in some countries, an exchange student is also considered a study abroad student because they are studying in different country than their own. Student exchange program does not necessarily require the student going out of the country but it could also be an exchange program within the continent and its territory which is the National student exchange program (NSE). According to the U.S. government, foreign exchange programs exist to provide certain international cultural exchange programs designed to provide practical training and employment, and sharing of the history, culture, and traditions of participants home country citing the Q series international cultural exchange visa's specifications as provided by the U.S. department of state.

The term “exchanges” means that partnered institution exchange their student but not necessarily the students have to find a counterpart from the other institution to exchange with. No tradeoff is actually required. Two types of student exchange program are international and national student exchange program. A student exchange programs could be joined either by the secondary school or university student excluding National Student Exchange where it is design primarily for university student studying in American continent and its territory. An exchange student could live with a host family or in a designated place including hostels, affordable apartment/house or student lodge. The cost for each program differs according to countries and institution. The participants could either apply/receive scholarship, self-funded or apply/receive loan.

Student exchanges became popular after World War II, and have the aim of helping to increase the participants' understanding and tolerance of other cultures, as well as improving their language skills and broadening their social horizons. An exchange student typically stays in the host country for a relatively short period of time, often 6 to 10 months, in contrast to international students or those on study abroad programs which can last for several years. Some students on exchange programs can receive academic credit from the country they study in.

The main missions of the program are:

to enhance the educational experience of student, to strengthen the networking between students and Universities, broaden personal and educational perspectives, explore, appreciate and understand different cultures, to enhance the ability of the student in foreign language learning, to eliminate fear and prejudice among nations, enable student to experience international education.

 

It is sad, but in fact, only a small group of people know about the types of NEP. That’s why we are going to speak a little about them as much as we know. There are several types of NEP: national exchange programs and international exchange programs. Moreover, international exchange programs divided into: short and long-term exchange programs.

National Exchange Programs (NEP)

Nal Student Exchange (NSE) is a not-for-profit education consortium, provides affordable and practical opportunities for students enrolled at member campuses to study and live in a new location.[1] More than 94,000 students have participated in this program since it was founded in 1968. NSE is designed for students who are looking for chances to study in different state rather than country. This may be due to lack of interest in going overseas, or doesn’t have the chance to go or just wanting to gain experience on different culture and education but closer to home. NSE is only available in the American continent and its territories (United States, Canada, Guam, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands) where universities and colleges that are members of NSE will receive and send student for exchange. Students are not allowed to go for an exchange to non NSE members. To date, there are nearly 200 universities and colleges that have registered as NSE members. Application process, placement and pre-departure process will be coordinated fully by the home NSE coordinator. Student could choose whether to pay the tuition fees to home campus or host campus. Student may only participate in the exchange for a cumulative total of time not to exceed one calendar year, defined as an academic year and a summer session.(you can get more information on NSE web-site)

International Exchange Programs (IEP)

Short-term Exchange

Short term exchange program is also known as summer/intensive or cultural exchange program that focus on home stays, language skills, community service or cultural activities. Short term exchange program doesn’t require student to find counterpart from other country to exchange with. It is more on the exchange of culture between the student and host countries. High school and universities student could apply for the program from various government or non-governmental organization that organize the programs. This program could last from one week to three month and doesn’t require the student to study in any particular school or institution. The students are exposed to an intensive program that increases their understanding of other culture, community and languages. Here are some examples of short term student exchange program and organization:

  • Quest International
  • STS Student Travel Schools Exchange Programs
  • YFU (Youth For Understanding) Exchange Program
  • AFS (American Field Service) Intercultural Program
  • Lions International Youth Exchange Program
  • Southern Cross Cultural exchange
  • EATOF (East Asia Inter-Regional Tourism Forum)   Summer Youth Camp
  • AYUSA Global Youth Exchange Summer Study Abroad Program
  • Rotary International
  • List of Summer Programs by Country

Besides it, there you can prepare for IELTS or improve you journalist skills. It is the most popular type of exchange programs in Russia.

 

Long-term exchange

A long term exchange is considered an exchange which is designed to last six to ten months or up to one full year. Participants are to attend high school in their host countries, through a student visa. Typically, non-USA students coming to the USA are issued J-1 Cultural Exchange Visas though some programs may use the F-1 Foreign Student Visa. Students are expected to integrate themselves into the host family, living as a natural child would, immersing themselves in the local community and surroundings, and upon their return to their home country are expected to incorporate this knowledge into their daily lives, as well as give a presentation on their experience to their sponsors. This is a hallmark of the AFS and Rotary programs. Many exchange programs expect students to be able converse in the language of the new host country, at least on a basic level. Some programs require students to pass a standardized test for English language comprehension, for example, prior to being accepted into a program taking them to the United States. Others do not examine basic language communication ability.

 

Nowadays this program is based on a “Bologna process” program. So in fact, all universities of the countries, which take part in this process, should work with IEP and NEP. But there are only a few American and English universities in IEP.

  • Concordia university (Canada)
  • University of Sheffield (the U.K)
  • University of Sherbrooke (Canada)
  • University of Roehampton (the U.K)
  • Newcastle university (the U.K)
  • University of Aberdeen (the U.K)
  • Aston university (the U.K)
  • Bangor university (the U.K)
  • Birmingham university (the U.K)
  • Bristol (university of the west England) (the U.K)
  • Brunel university (the U.K)
  • University of Cambridge(the U.K)
  • Oxford Business college
  • University of Oxford 
  • University of Manchester
  • University of London
  • London school of Economics
  • Moscow State Institute of International Relations(RF)
  • Moscow state university (RF)
  • PSU (RF)
  • RUFP(RF)
  • SPSU(RF)

 

As you can see, only a few Russian universities take part in NEP and IEP, but in fact, nearly 50% of Russian students want to study abroad. 45% of them prefer to study in Great Britain, 23.8% of students prefer to study in the USA.

I think, NEP and IEP are so popular because they have many benefits:

  Educational: international learning and knowledge propels students towards acceptance and understanding of an array of different cultural and community perspectives, language acquisition is achieved through practical immersion, increase awareness and adoption of alternative, multi-faceted approaches to learning, acquire analytical and problem solving skills, enhanced interest in global issues as well as broadening general knowledge.

Personal: self-development and awareness leading to enhanced self-confidence and self-esteem. This is often the most noticeable change in returned exchange students, enhance maturity and social poise; fuelled by the necessity to confront challenges outside a familiar support network and comfort zone, the integration into another family as well as the development of lifelong friendships could foster an appreciation of home and family, a tremendous sense of accomplishment upon completion encourages students to develop independent opinions, make informed decisions and strive to attain fresh goals.

Long-term: students who go on to tertiary studies find themselves more comfortable in ‘foreign’ environments; prospective employers in almost every field look favorably upon experience gained while living overseas and knowledge obtained of another language and culture; increased pressure to communicate and relate to others develops an awareness of group dynamics and personal sensitivity towards others; successful program completion represents an excellent measure of personal flexibility, encompassing an ability to reach compromise, focus and succeed through challenging times.

Moreover, study abroad could contribute to both of the “host countries” and the “sending countries”.

For “host countries”:the major “host countries” could maintain influence, spread their culture to “sending countries” with recruiting talent from “sending countries”; foreign students contribute to the local economy in these “host countries” in directly, such as the expense for tuition, rent, foods as well as products.

For “sending countries”: study abroad is important for the development of some sending countries and to establish the higher quality academic institution in sending countries. Therefore developing countries prefer to send their students to developed countries for further study; the university in sending countries originated as a conservation institution and the university in developing nations as born as a radical institution.

In conclusion I can say that international exchange programs are a good chance to get new knowledge and change your life. In any case, you do not lose anything from learning in another country. It gives you a new experience.

 

 

Источники

  1. Интернет-журнал «Комментарии»
  2. Журнал «NewYorker»
  3. Сайт « Educational INDEX»
  4. Web-site Delegation of the European union to Russia
  5. Журнал «GEO»
  6. Web-site «Flex»
  7. Web-site «Exchange program»

 

Аннотация

Статья содержит информацию о программах обучения по обмену. Вообще термин «обучение по обмену»  значит то, что вузы-партнеры обмениваются студентами. В статье рассказывается об истории развития, целях и перспективах данного вида обучения. Программа получила развитие после второй мировой войны. Основной целью стало повышение уровня взаимопонимания между людьми разных наций и культур. Помимо этого она повышает общекультурный и языковой уровень, расширяет круг знакомств и.т.д.

 Обучение по обмену очень популярно среди современных студентов, однако далеко не все знают, что существуют разные виды таких программ. Национальные программы позволяют получать образование в разных городах своей страны. Этот вид обучения популярен в США. Так же есть программы международного обмена. Есть краткосрочные курсы. Они длятся от пары недель до нескольких месяцев. Обычно программы направлены  на изучение иностранных языков в летнее время. Студенты живут в хостелах или специальных лагерях, редко в семьях. Долгосрочные курсы могут длиться до  года. Студент учится в университете/школе и живет в приемной семье. Программы позволяют глубже изучить иностранную культуру, перенять языковые особенности у носителей языка. Но для того, чтобы принять участие в долгосрочной программе необходимо сдать тесты, позволяющие определить уровень знания иностранного языка, психологические и коммуникативные навыки человека. Однако очень малое количество российских вузов участвуют в программах по обмену. Возможно из-за того, что она прияла программу «Болонского процесса» сравнительно недавно(2003г). Среди участвующих российских вузов: МГИМО, МГУ, СПбГУ, РУДН.

Около 50% студентов России хотят поучаствовать в подобной программе, из них 45% хотели бы учиться  в Англии, а 23,8% в США. Такой высокий  уровень популярности легко объясним, программы дают массу преимуществ. Программа позволяет завести  новых друзей, развить самоконтроль, научиться приспосабливаться к  различным культурам, повышает образовательный  уровень, работодатели приветствуют подобный опыт,при принятии на работу, участникам проще «прижиться» заграницей, им легче находить компромиссы в сложных ситуациях.

 


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During the last 70 years the world has changed a lot. Many changes have happened in educational system. Appearance of the exchange program is one of them.
International exchange program (IEP) is a good chance to change your life. A student exchange program generally could be defined as a program where students from secondary school or university choose to study abroad in partner institutions. The terms 'student exchange
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